FCHIP - Layers

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Description of Layers

Bike Trails  
This layer includes all existing bike trails in Fresno County.
Source: Fresno Council of Governments, 2014 http://www.fresnocog.org/.

Green Spaces
This layer includes protected lands within Fresno County, including lands with open access, restricted access, and unknown access determined by the California Protected Areas Database (CPAD). Users may view protected lands by level of access on the HPI map. Restricted access areas require permits or have irregular hours. CPAD could not determine public access permissions for areas categorized as unknown access. Protected lands with no public access are not included.
Source: California Protected Areas Data Portal, 2016 http://www.calands.org/.

Census Tracts 
Census tracts are defined by the US Census Bureau and have a population size between 1,200 and 8,000.
Source: Fresno County Public Works and Planning, US Census Bureau. 

Economic Disadvantage 
California Public Resources Code section 75005(g) defines a disadvantaged and severely disadvantaged community as 80% and 60% of California Median Household Income. Census tracts with median household income below 80% and 60% of the California median household income are represented as economically disadvantaged and severely economically disadvantaged, respectively.  These measures are accepted by California Department of Public Health, State Water Resources Control Board, and consistent with California Active Transportation Program Guidelines.
Source: US Census Bureau, American Community Survey, American FactFinder, 2014.

Level of Health Burden 
Health burden is based on 4 health measures: pre-term birth rate, pollution burden, years of potential life lost, and a composite mortality index. A census tract in the greatest 25% of a health measure, , is considered "burdened" by that health measure. Census tracts experiencing the greatest health burden are among the greatest 25% on all four health measures, while census tracts experiencing the lowest health burden are not among the reatest 25% on any of the four health measures. Each health measure is defined below:

Pre-term birth rate: Pre-term birth is any birth that occurred prior to 38 weeks gestational age. This measure is indicative of poor health care or pre-natal access, environmental stresses, and poverty. A pre-term birth rate is calculated for each census tract and birth rates are ranked by percentile across the county. Census tracts in the 75th percentile or higher are considered "burdened" by pre-term births when determining the level of health burden.
Source: CDPH Automated Vital Statistics System (AVSS), 2010-2014.

Pollution Burden: The Cal-EnviroScreen 2.0 data provides a pollution burden score and pollution burden percentile for each census tract in California. Census tracts in the 75th percentile or higher of the pollution burden are considered "burdened" by pollution when determining the level of health burden.
Source: Cal-EnviroScreen 2.0.

Year of Potential Life Lost (YPLL): YPLL is a measure of death for deaths that occur prior to 75 years. Each death of a person younger than 75 years receives an YPLL value calculated as the difference between the age at death and 75 years. This measure is sensitive to deaths in younger populations and many deaths among elders younger than 75. Fresno  County's death record data is used to calculate YPLL by census tract. YPLL is ranked across the county, and census tracts in the 75th percentile or higher are considered burdened when calculating the level of health burden.  
Source: Fresno County Department of Public Health death record data, 2005-2014.

Composite Mortality Index: This measure is based on deaths caused by select preventable chronic conditions (chronic lung disease, myocardial infarction, diabetes, colon cancer, hyperlipidemia or obesity), YPLL, and crude mortality. The aforementioned causes of death were selected because these are preventable and may indicate a need for community-level change. The numbers of deaths attributable to each preventable chronic condition per census tract were identified. YPLL and crude mortality were also calculated for each census tract. The number of deaths for each preventable chronic condition, YPLL, and crude mortality were each ranked into quartiles and weighted. Ranks were summed across all preventable chronic conditions, YPLL, and crude mortality. The worst 25% of census tracts by summed rank across the county were identified as "burdened" by composite mortality index.
Source: Fresno County Department of Public Health death record data, 2005-2014.

Crime Index
This is an ESRI layer, which calculates crime rate based on the FBI Uniform Crime Report. The crime rate in each Fresno County census tract is compared to the national crime rate. Census tracts experiencing two times and four times the national crime rate, respectively, are represented on the HPI. A detailed description of ESRI's methodology is available here:                                    http://downloads.esri.com/esri_content_doc/dbl/us/AGS_CrimeRisk_2014A_Methodology.pdf 
Source: ESRI, National Crime Index, 2014.